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Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Working Principle

Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Working Principle

The shell and tube heat exchanger is a commonly used heat exchange equipment. Its working principle is mainly to achieve heat energy transfer and conversion by exchanging hot and cold air flows. The working principle of shell and tube heat exchangers will be introduced in detail below.

1. Basic structure

Shell and tube heat exchangers are mainly composed of shells, tube bundles, tube plates, baffles and other parts. Among them, the shell is used to accommodate the tube bundle and withstand pressure; the tube bundle is the core part of the heat exchanger and consists of many heat exchange tubes; the tube plate is used to connect the tube bundle and the shell; the baffle is used to change the flow direction of the fluid and increase the fluid flow. The degree of turbulence improves heat transfer efficiency.

2. Working principle

The working principle of shell and tube heat exchangers mainly involves two processes: heat conduction and heat convection. When the hot and cold fluids enter the shell side and tube side of the heat exchanger respectively, due to the temperature difference, heat exchange occurs between the two fluids. Heat is transferred from a fluid with a higher temperature to a fluid with a lower temperature, thereby transferring heat from one fluid to another.

In a shell-and-tube heat exchanger, the tube-side fluid and the shell-side fluid are separated by the tube sheet, but there is still a certain heat transfer resistance. In order to improve the heat transfer efficiency, baffles are usually installed in the shell side to make the fluid change the flow direction multiple times in the shell side, increase the turbulence of the fluid, and reduce the heat transfer resistance of the fluid during the flow process. At the same time, the baffles can also play a role in supporting the tube bundle to prevent the tube bundle from being deformed or displaced due to fluid impact.

3. Application fields

Because shell and tube heat exchangers have the advantages of simple structure, high reliability, and wide application range, they are widely used in petroleum, chemical industry, pharmaceuticals, food, light industry and other fields. In the petroleum industry, shell and tube heat exchangers are often used for cooling, heating or desalination of oil products; in the chemical industry, they can be used for heat exchange in various chemical reaction processes; in the pharmaceutical industry, they can be used for heating and cooling of pharmaceutical solvents; In the food industry, it can be used for heating and cooling liquids such as juice and dairy products.

In short, the working principle of the shell and tube heat exchanger is mainly based on two physical processes: heat conduction and heat convection. Heat transfer and conversion are achieved through the exchange of hot and cold air flows. It is widely used in various fields and provides important technical support for heat exchange in industrial production processes.

Category: Industry News

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